## Learning Goals from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSS-M)

#### NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas

##### MS-ESS2.D: Weather and Climate

- Weather and climate are influenced by interactions involving sunlight, the ocean, the atmosphere, ice,* landforms, and living things. These interactions vary with latitude, altitude, and local and regional geography, all of which can affect oceanic and atmospheric flow patterns.
- Because these patterns are so complex, weather can only be predicted probabilistically.
- The ocean exerts a major influence on weather and climate by absorbing energy from the sun, releasing it over time, and globally redistributing it through ocean currents. (NGSS Standards, p. 82)

#### NGSS Scientific Practices

##### Practice 1: Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Ask questions

- that arise from careful observation of phenomena, models, or unexpected results, to clarify and/or seek additional information.
- to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables and relationship in models. (NGSS Appendixes, p. 51)

##### Practice 3: Planning and Carrying out Investigations

- Collect data to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer scientific questions or to test design solutions under a range of conditions. (NGSS Appendixes, p. 55)

##### Practice 4: Analyzing and Interpreting Data

- Construct, analyze, and/or interpret graphical displays of data and /or large data sets to identify linear and non-linear relationships.
- Use graphical displays (e.g. maps, charts, graphs, and/or tables) of large data sets to identify temporal and spatial relationships.
- Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings. (NGSS Appendixes, p. 57)

##### Practice 5: Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

- Use digital tools (computers) to analyze very large data sets for patterns and trends. (NGSS, Volume 2, Appendixes, p. 59)

#### NGSS Crosscutting Concepts

##### Patterns

- Patterns in rates of change and other numerical relationships can provide information about natural systems. (NGSS Standards, p. 81)

##### Cause and Effect

- Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural systems. (NGSS Standards, p. 81) Patterns in rates of change and other numerical relationships can provide information about natural systems. (NGSS Standards, p. 81)
- Students] also understand that phenomena may have more than one cause, and some cause and effect relationship in systems can only be described using probability. (NGSS Appendixes, p. 83)

##### Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

- Time, space, and energy phenomena can be observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small. (NGSS Standards, p. 81)

##### Stability and Change

- Explanations of stability and change in natural or designed systems can be constructed by examining the changes over time and processes at different scales, including the atomic scale. (NGSS Standards, p. 81)

##### Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data

- Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.
- Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line. (CCSS-M, p. 56)

*Parts of the NGSS and CCSS-M statements that are not addressed by WeatherSchool are grayed out.

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